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International Conference on Gynecology and Obstetrics Pathology, will be organized around the theme “An insight into the unexplored areas of Gynecologic and Obstetrics Pathology”

Gynecology and Obstetrics Pathology 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Gynecology and Obstetrics Pathology 2017

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‘Care’ is the word that is related to all the stages of conceiving a child. Before delivery a women has to take care of her and after delivery she has to care for herself as well as her baby. If the nine months of delivery is taken into account it can be divided into three stages and that is Prepartum care, Intrapartum care and Postpartum care. In the initial stages that is the Prepartum the expecting mother should go to pathology  and check the condition of the baby at frequent intervals. This makes it easy to find complications in pregnancy like Preclampsia, Eclampsia, Miscarriages, bleeding and etc. Immunization of the mother is of core importance as this protects the fetus from many deadly diseases. After conceiving the body of the mother changes and so does her mind. Post partum care is very important to the newly born baby as well as the mother. Breastfeeding is of the most important aspect of postpartum care. Next what comes in line is protecting the newly born from external infections and providing the baby with all the vaccinations in regular time period. Postpartum depression, Peripartum cardiomyopathy, Urinary  Incontinence, Puerperal fever are the other complications that comes in after the delivery of the baby.

  • Track 1-1Preclampsia
  • Track 1-2Eclampsia
  • Track 1-3Isoimmunization
  • Track 1-4Third trimester bleeding
  • Track 1-5Abortion
  • Track 1-6Breastfeeding
  • Track 1-7Postpartum depression
  • Track 1-8Puerperal fever
  • Track 1-9Metastatic Breast cancer

Ultrasound is done during pregnancy to track the development of the fetus in the mother’s womb.  It is not only helpful in tracking down development but also helps to find out any fetal anomalies if there are any.Ultrasound reveals the heartbeat of the fetus, the radius of the head, the length of the hands and feet  and also his/her height and weight. If the baby is under or over developed it can be also detected in the ultrasound. There are various kinds of ultrasound that is done during pregnancy namely Transvaginal Ultrasound, 3-D Ultrasound, 4-D Ultrasound and  Fetal Echocardiography. While the sonography in the first trimester gives information about the fetal heartbeat,examines the placenta, uterus, ovaries, cervix, checks for multiple pregnancies, the sonography done in the second and third trimester reveals much important criterias like placental abruption, placental previa, characteristics of Down’s syndrome if there are any. The ultrasound in this stage also determines whether there is any congenital disease or birth defects or not. Genetics is not given enough importance before conceiving. As most of the pregnancies come unplanned passing on of genetic disorders from parents to the baby is very comman. Genetics disorders are also known as ‘recessive disorders’. Genetic screening is very important before having plans of getting pregnant. Some of the genetic disorders are Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, Tay-Sachs Disease and Fragile X Disease.

  • Track 2-1Ultrasound
  • Track 2-2Genetics
  • Track 2-3Prenatal diagnosis
  • Track 2-4Fetal Anomalies
  • Track 2-5Clinical Utility of fetal echocardiography

Health problems that occurs in the mother’s body due to pregnancy are termed as complications in pregnancy. These complications can be now sub divided into many sections. While some complications are common to every expecting mother while others can be particular to few expecting females only. According the statistics it is found out that 90% of the females in some or the other stages of pregnancy have experienced complications. While some complications are easy on the body like mild nausea and morning sickness but other complications like asthma, diabetes, thyroid diseases and hypertension needs to be taken care of under the quality guidance of gynaecologists and obstetrics. Some of the medical complications proves to be fatal to the fetus as well as the mother.Women suffering from other medical complications like HIV, Urinary Tract Infections, Ectopic Pregnancies and etc should go for immunization and medical assistance from time to time to keep the intensity of the complications under control.  Some of the medical complications like Diabetes and Hypertension are so chronic that the continue to persist in the body even after the delivery of the baby. Avoiding smoking, drinking alchohol and maintaining a healthy lifestyle decreases the chances of having complications in pregnancy.

  • Track 3-1Asthma
  • Track 3-2Diabetes Mellitus
  • Track 3-3Thyroid diseases
  • Track 3-4HIV
  • Track 3-5Urinary Tract Infection

Infections in the female genitalia and the accessory sex organs are commonly known as Gynecologic Infectious Diseases. While some of these diseases can be cured easily by the usage of antibiotics while others need to be paid serious attention while curing them. Some of the infectious diseases are Vulvovaginitis, Cervicitis, Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. These diseases can also occur during pregnancy and their severity increases in most cases. Infections like Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus infection, Rubella, Toxoplasmosis, Hepatitis or Syphilis, Listeriosis, Bacterial Vaginosis can damage the fetus as well affect labor or choice of delivery method. As to prevent is diseases personal hygiene is of utmost important. All the above mentioned diseases can be cured by having right dosage of antibiotics like Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Metronidazole, Penicillins.

  • Track 4-1Vulvovaginitis
  • Track 4-2Cervicitis
  • Track 4-3Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases
  • Track 4-4Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Gynecologic Oncology is a specialized field that deals with cancers pertaining to the female genitalia and reproductive system. Ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer and vulvar cancer are all a part of gynaecologic oncology. According to the data collected by The Society of Gynecologic Oncology 82,00 women in the United States were affected by gynaecologic cancer annually. This number rose to 94,730 in the year 2015. Some of the ovarian malignant germ cell tumour are Dysgerminoma, Embryonal Carcinoma, Polyembryoma, Choriocarcinoma and Immature teratomas. Nowadays cervical cancer is the most talked about gynaecologic cancer caused by Human Papillomavirus. In most of the cases Cervical cancer is not even diagonised in the first stage. It is often diagonised in the later stages. Doctors nowadays ask women above 40 years of age to go through Pap-smear tests every 2years. The rate of survival in case of gynaecologic cancers is higher if it is detected in the early stages of it. Chemotherapy and radiations are often used to treat cancers and lesions in the reproductive tract. There are various complications that comes in after the patient goes through chemotherapy. The most comman gynaecological complication of pelvic radiation are ovarian failure in premenopausal women and vaginal stenosis(vs). The next complication being sexual dysfunction and menopause.

  • Track 5-1Survival in Gynecologic Oncology
  • Track 5-2Gestational Trophoblastic diseases
  • Track 5-3Vulvar cancer
  • Track 5-4Endometrial Hyperplasia
  • Track 5-5Cervical cancer
  • Track 5-6Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
  • Track 5-7Non-epithelial ovarian cancer
  • Track 5-8Epithelial ovarian cancer
  • Track 5-9Radiation Toxicity
  • Track 5-10Complications of Chemotherapy
  • Track 5-11Chemotherapy
  • Track 5-12Electrolytes

Cervix is the lower part of the uterus which opens into the vagina. When the abnormal cells of the cervix grows out of control cervical cancer occurs. Cervical cancer can be easily detected in the early stages by a test called ‘Pap test’. In the year of 2016 12,990 cases of cervical cancer were registered in the United Sates only with 4,120 deaths.Most kinds of cervical cancer is caused by a virus known as Human Papillomavirus or HPV. There are many types of HPV. But every kind doesnot results in cervical cancer. Some causes genital warts which doesnot have any symptoms.  The main causes of cervical cancer are smoking, usage of oral contraceptive pills and getting multiple pregnancies. The symptoms of cervical cancer includes irregular bleeding from the vagina excluding menstrual cycle, pain in the lower belly, pain during having sex and abnormal vaginal discharge. Everykind of cervical cancer is not fatal to the women. Treatment that includes surgeries and chemotherapies have been proved successful in treating cervical cancer in the initial stages. Surgeries such as hysterectomy,brachytherapy,trachelectomy,  removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes, chemotherapy and radiations helps in treating cervical cancer. There are various ways in which cerival cancer be prevented. Barrier protection that is usage of condoms while having sex, screening and vaccination are the ways in which cervical cancer can be prevented.

  • Track 6-1Signs and Symptoms
  • Track 6-2Causes- HPV, Smoking,OCP and Multiple Pregnancies
  • Track 6-3Diagnosis- Biopsy, Precancerous lesions, Staging
  • Track 6-4Prevention- Screening, barrier protection and vaccination
  • Track 6-5 Treatment- Hysterectomry, Brachytherapy and trachelectomy

Urogynecology is sub-division of Gynecology. Urogynecologists are specially trained medical professionals who treats clinical problems related to dysfunction of the pelvic floor and bladder. In some countries Urogynecology is also known as Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery. Some of the disorders in pelvic floor includes urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and fecal incontinence. Other conditions where urogynecology is practiced are Cystocele, Enterocele, Female Genital Prolapse, Lichen sclerosus, Overactive Bladder and Rectovaginal fistula. In modern times Urogynecologists are being responsible for the care of women who are facing trauma to the perineum during childbirth. Some of the test which are performed in urogynecologic pathology includes Cystourethroscopy, Urodynamic testing and Ultrasound.Urogynecologic problems are not life threatening  but they do have a major impact on the body of the individuals. The International Urogynecological Association(IUGA)  is a global organisation dealing with the professionals  practicing in the filed of female pelvic medicine, reconstructive surgery and urogynecology. Some of the important treatments available in the sector of Urogynecology includes Abdominal reconstruction, Behavioral modification, Botulinum toxin injection, Dietary modification, Robotic reconstruction, Sacral nerve stimulation and Urethral injection.

  • Track 7-1Urinary incontinence
  • Track 7-2Pelvic organ Prolapse

Methods and devices used to prevent pregnancy are often known as birth control or contraception. Contraception has been in practice since time immemorial but the modern ways of contraception had come into play in the 20th century. Birth control is not only used in cases of unwanted pregnancies but its also used in cases where pregnancy is proved to be fatal to the fetus as well as the mother. It also protects people from getting affected by sexually transmitted diseases. Contraception also plays an pivotal role in family planning as well. It affects demographics like population control, population density and so on. Birth control also helps in increasing economic growth of a country by decreasing the number of dependent children, more women in the working sector and less use of scarce resources. Nowadays in the market various kinds of contraception are available both for men and women which have long term and short term effect respectively. While some contaceptions are permanent while others are temporary. Among the permanent ways of contraceptions, sterilization is one of them which is vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females. Among the non permanent methods of contraception there are emergency contraception pills, patches, vaginal rings, injections, intrauterine devices. Others physical barrier methods include usage of condoms, diaphragms, birth control sponges and fertility awareness methods.  Worldwide 26th September is celebrated as the World Contraception Day.

  • Track 8-1Oral Contraceptive Pills
  • Track 8-2Emergency Contraception
  • Track 8-3Barrier methods
  • Track 8-4Long acting methods
  • Track 8-5Intra Uterine Devices
  • Track 8-6Sterilization

Reproductive Endocrinology is a sub-division in Gynecology and Obstetrics which trains professionals in the field of reproductive medicine, hormonal dysfunction in the times of pregnancy as well as it deals with the issue of infertility among couples. Reproductive endocrinologists not only treat people affected by infertility but also treat patients with hormonal dysfucntions.  Regulation and proper functioning of the endocrine system is very important for the human body. Improper secretion of hormones leads to many complications in pregnancy. Dysfunctioning of reproductive hormones is one of the most comman reason for infertility among men and women. Hormonal changes not only affects the human body but also affects the human mind to a larger extent. When pregnancy is taken into account a milieu of hormones togetherly affects the development of the baby during embyrogenesis and the mother, including human chorionic gonadotrophin and progesterone. Over activity or under activity of the hormonal glands in our body induces many diseases like Diabetes, Thyroid, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Hirsutism, Virilism and so on. The onset of puberty and menstrual cycle, menopause are all due to the endocrine system functioning in our body. Reproductive endocrinology exclusively deals with the complications of infertility and tends to give it solution through reproductive medicine  and hormonal injections.

  • Track 9-1Menstrual Cycle
  • Track 9-2Puberty
  • Track 9-3Hirsutism
  • Track 9-4Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
  • Track 9-5Hyperprolactinemia
  • Track 9-6Infertility
  • Track 9-7Menopause
  • Track 9-8Virilism

Breasts are important as they act as accessory sex organs to the female reproductive system. Just as the other body parts go through diseases breasts also are infected with various kinds of diseases. Breast disease cause cysts, infections,lesions and lumps. These diseases can be painful as well as without pain in many cases. Some of these diseases can be benign and others can be malignant. Most of the comman breast diseases and infections are Baterial Mastitis, Fibrocystic Breast Disease, Chronic Subareolar Abscess, Tuberculosis of the breast, Actinomycosis of the breast and breast engorgement. The breast gives out various symptoms if it has been going through some disease. The symptoms can be lumps in the breast region, inversion of the nipple, breast skin change and secretion from the breast. Nowadays many women are heavily being affected by breast cancer due to the lifestyle they are leading. Major causes of breast cancer includes smoking, drinking alchohol, usage of oral contraceptive pills. Breast cancer can be also be caused due to uterine cancer and cervical cancer. Women from early age should self breast examine at regular intervals and have mammography regularly. Women above the age of 40years and majorly menopausal women are at  a greater risk of getting breast cancer. Pathological tests like Mammograms, biopsy, breast cancer index test, breast physical exam, digital tomosynthesis, breast mri, endopredict test  are all done to access and detect diseases of the breast.

  • Track 10-1Breast Cancer
  • Track 10-2Mondor’s disease
  • Track 10-3Paget’s disease of the breast
  • Track 10-4Breast atrophy and hypertropy

Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery has been shown to be appropriate among the doctors as an alternative in wideranging surgical procedures. For the execution of this kind of surgery patient selection is very crucial. In case of Minimally invasive gynaecologic surgery there are various advantages  of it. The advantages being shorter period of stay at the hospital, decreased analgesic requirements, faster recovery, lower intraoperative and postoperative complications and improved quality of life. The usage of Laproscopy has been used extensively for the management of benign gynaecologic conditions such as treatment and evaluation of endometriosis and benign adnexal masses. According to the American Society of Cancer 40,100 women were affected by uterine cancer in the year of 2008 and the number has increased by forefold in the upcoming years.Minimally Invasive Gynecologic surgery includes vaginoplasty which is the reconstruction of the vagina. These surgeries reconstructs the vagina and the other female genitalia which have been destructed by chemotherapies and radiation. Reconstruction surgery after cancer treatment, McIndoe surgical Technique, Bowel vaginoplasty, Sex assignment surgery, Labiaplasty, Elective vaginoplasty, Hymen surgical procedures, Balloon vaginoplasty and Wilson Method all these methods comes under minimally invasive gynaecologic surgery.

  • Track 11-1Vaginoplasty
  • Track 11-2Surgical outcome of penile inversion vaginoplasty
  • Track 11-3Neoplasm invasiveness
  • Track 11-4Utility of minimally invasive surgery in endometrial cancer care
  • Track 11-5Feasibility and perioperative outcomes of robotic assisted surgery in the management of recurrent ovarian CANCER

Pathology has come a long way since its usage from 1950’s and before it even. Gynaecologic pathology has been come up with developments in the recent times. Innovations such as immunohistochemistry, tissue pathways and molecular pathologies have opened up path-breaking arenas in terms of gynaecologic pathology. Molecular pathology is emerging as an important discipline in pathology which is focussing on the study of diseases by examining molecules, tissue fluids and bodily fluids. Nowadays cancers like breast and ovarian cancer can be detected by examining the fluids rather than opting for biopsy. Immunohistochemistry on the other plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of gynaecological lesions.

  • Track 12-1Immunohistochemistry in gynaecologic pathology
  • Track 12-2Tissue pathways for gynaecologic pathology
  • Track 12-3Molecular studies in gynaecologic tumours

The technology which is used to achieve pregnancy artificially is known as the assisted reproductive technology. Assisted reproductive technology includes procedures namely fertility medication, in vitro fertilization(IVF)  and surrogacy. ART is primarily used in treating infertility among couples. It belongs mainly to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. ART includes many techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI), cryopreservation, transvaginal ovum retrival, embryo transfer, assisted zona hatching, autologous endometrial co-culture, zygote intrafallopian transfer, cytoplasmic transfer, egg donors, sperm donors, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, emryo splitting, GIFT, ZIFT, sex selection and surgical sperm retrival. All these methods are being widely used as problems of infertility are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. While some of these methods are safe but majority of them are harmful to the fetus as the babies are born with some kind of birth defects or genetic defects.ART also carries the risk of heterotopic pregnancy. In IVF and ICSI babies are born with low birth weight, decreased expression of proteins in energy metabolism, visual impairment and cerebral palsy. ART procedures in the United States has doubled in the last 10years with the cost ranging from $2,000 to $30,000. ART procedures should be only performed after examing the medical condition of the couple. Many a times ART proves to be harmful to both the mother and child.

  • Track 13-1Intrauterine Insemination
  • Track 13-2Invitro Fertilization
  • Track 13-3Surrogates and Gestational Carriers

The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis  and management of reproductive problems  is known to be reproductive medicine. The aim of reproductive medicine is to improve and maintain the quality of reproductive health. The knowledge of reproductive medicine  is based on reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, physiology and pathology. If the topic of reproductive medicine is taken into account it can be further sub divided into prenatal medicine and postnatal medicine. The issues addressed in reproductive medicine are sexual education family planning,reproductive system diseases,birth control, infertility and sexual dysfunction. Ovulation, pregnancy, menstruation, menopause and other gynaecological problems are also assessed under reproductive medicine.

  • Track 14-1Prenatal medicine
  • Track 14-2Perinatal Medicine
  • Track 14-3Fatty eggs and Fertility

When we say about women’s health in some perspective of it, we tend to mean about women’s reproductive health. Women’s health should be given utmost care because they are the one’s who bear the responsibility of carving a better tomorrow by giving birth to healthy individuals.In the addition to it, in developed countries women are included in the country’s  workforce to a large extent. Talking about women’s health and family planning, they go hand in hand. Unprotected sex, unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases all add up to the factors of maternal mortality. In developed countries the life expectancy of women has increased but most women in older age experience various diseases like osteoporosis, arthritis, anaemia, cardiovascular diseases and etc. The sexual and reproductive health of the women is often ignored which leads to ovarian cancer, breast cancer, uterine cancer and cervical cancer. Women should pay heed to her health rather than ignore the symptoms. Family planning is another such issue which is directly linked to  women’s health. Before  conceiving or planning for a baby, the health condition the mother and the financial condition of the family should be assessed. The former two aspects are very important in bringing up a child in a healthy and stable environment.

 

  • Track 15-1Abnormal Vaginal Discharge
  • Track 15-2Psychological health during pregnancy and menopause
  • Track 15-3Lesbian Health Issues
  • Track 15-4Domestic Violence
  • Track 15-5Sexual harassment
  • Track 15-6Plans before conceiving